Edward Howell, Daniel Howe, Job Sayer, Edward Farrington and four other new residents of Lynn, Massachusetts, draw up The Disposall of the Vessell, articles of agreement in which the ship they arrived in is turned over to Howe, who agrees in exchange to make six trips over the next two years to convey and supply the others while they settle Paumanacke (Long Island).
A militia is formed in New Amsterdam.
A Dutch church is erected inside the stockade. ** Staten Island's David Pietersz De Vries leases out the island when his plantation there fails to attract settlers. ** A few pigs disappear on Staten Island. Governor Willem Kieft sends 100 armed men to the island where they kill several Raritan Indians, including a sachem. The Raritan burn a farm and kill four Dutch workmen - the Pig War. ** A colony of Massachusetts Quakers settles at Gravesend, Brooklyn, under the protection of the Dutch government.
Connecticut English colonists attempting to set up a colony on the North Shore
of today's Nassau County are driven off by the Dutch. They move further east, setting up a colony at Southampton, even though it too is part of Dutch territory. ** Albany's first church (Reformed Protestant Dutch) is built.
Family heads in New Amsterdam select a representative government, the Board of Twelve Men.
Scandinavian sea captain Jonas Bronck buys 500 acres north of Manhattan to farm tobacco. ** Overseer Jacob Stoffelson has city slaves removing dead hogs from the streets. ** In a double wedding Anthony van Angola and Catalina van Angola, and Lucie d'Angola and Laurens vam Angola, all slaves, are married in the Dutch Reformed Church. ** Eight slaves are accused of murdering a ninth. One, Manuel, belonging to Gerrit de Reus, is chosen by lot to hang. The rope breaks and spectators successfully plead for his life. The others - Big Manuel, Little Manuel, Paulo d'Angola, Simon Congo, and Anthony Portuguese - are pardoned.
New Amsterdam director Kieft convenes The Twelve Men to plan a campaign against the Algonquin.
Kieft dismisses The Twelve Men when they begin considering a permanent place in the government.
Kieft consents to the massacre of a band of innocent Algonquin Indians, forced into his area by hostile tribes in the Albany area.
Kieft's campaign against the Algonquin proves ineffective.
Father Jogues is captured by Mohawk Indians while on his way to the Jesuit Huron mission at Niagara. He will be ransomed by the Dutch within a year.
Faced with English settlers in Westchester County and on Long Island, Kieft appoints a special English secretary.
The approximate date the Dutch West India Company builds two taverns; Philip Geraerdy's at Stone and Whitehall, and City Tavern at Coentes and Pearl. The later is converted into the Stadt Huys (State House) by the end of the year. ** Twelve languages are spoken in the settlement. ** The daughter of minister Everardus Bogardus is married. Director Kieft takes advantage of the tippling guests by successfully soliciting subscriptions for a new stone church inside the fort. Construction begins. ** The Dutch engage in hostilities with New Jersey's Hackensack Indians over whiskey. ** European colonists settle on Long Island along Newtown Creek, near the Indian village of Mespaetches, the future site of Brooklyn's Greenpoint neighborhood.
The Reverend Johannes Megapolenses is made pastor of Albany's new Reformed Protestant Dutch church. ** Dutch-born Arent Van Curler makes his first visit to the site of Schenectady. ** Mahican warriors begin arriving at villages of the Wecquaesgeek (Wappinger) Indians along the eastern bank of the lower Hudson River, seeking tribute, in order to pay for Dutch weapons.
Rhode Island Narragansett sachem Miontonimo and 100 warriors visit Metoac villages in the summer to recruit allies for a war against the Mohegan in Connecticut. Governor Kieft misinterprets the Indians' intention, becoming convinced a secret uprising is being organized against Europeans.
New Amsterdam's Director General Kieft makes war on Indians at Corlaer's Hook and Pavonia, precipitating a war that lasts over the next two years.
Staten Island farmer David De Vries convinces 18 Metoac sachems to signed a treaty of truce with Kieft. Envoys are sent to the Hackensack and Tappan urging them also to sign.
Indians murder Anne Hutchinson and her family in Eastchester.
Kieft seeks counsel from a new body, The Eight.
Population: 800. 18 languages are spoken. ** French Jesuit priest Father Isaac Jogues visits the city. ** Settler Jonas Bronck dies. ** Wecquaesgeek Indians resist demands for tribute by the Mahicans. Several are killed and many women and children captured. The Wecquaesgeek flee south to Manhattan, expecting protection from the Dutch, who are supplying guns for the Mahicans. When they cross the river to New Jersey, Kieft becomes convinced an attack is imminent and attacks their villages, massacring 110 (the Pavonia Massacre). The Wappinger War (Governor Kieft's War) begins, lasts until 1645. ** The Long Island community of Middelburgh or Middleburg (later known as New Towne and finally Elmhurst) is settled by the English. ** Fort Amsterdam is built at the southern tip of the island. ** Martin Krigier opens a tavern on Bowling Green.
John Carman and Robert Fordham arrive on Long Island from Stamford, Connecticut, negotiate for a 10-mile-wide strip from the Sound to the Atlantic with the Indians, and start the first English settlement, on the island's Hempstead Plains.
A number of black New Amsterdam slaves, having worked for the West India company for over 18 years, are granted conditional emancipation.
English and Dutch colonists destroy Canarsee, Massapequa, and Merrick villages on western Long Island. ** Kieft declares a day of thanksgiving after his forces kill 500 Indians.
Jesuit father Joseph Bessani is captured by Mohawks while he's en route to The Huron missions in the Niagara region. He's later ransomed by the Dutch.
The Eight seeks an expanded role in the government.
The Eight seek relief from the Dutch government.
A number of black slaves, including Big Manuel, Little Manuel, Paulo d'Angola, Simon Congo, and Anthony Portuguese, half-freedom. They were free on a bond, payable in labor, while their children remained slaves.
English-Connecticut mercenary John Underhill, along with two companies of 120 volunteers, and Mohegan scouts, hired by Kieft for 25,000 guilders, kills over 120 Indian men, women and children at their fort (Fort Neck) near today's Massapequa. ** Connecticut pioneers, among them John Seren, settle north of Long Island's Hempstead Plains.
Claes Martin van Roosevelt arrives in New Amsterdam.
Jan Evertse Bout is granted land in Brooklyn.
The Dutch and the Algonquin establish peace through Mohawk intermediaries.
The Dutch and the Indians sign the peace treaty at New Amsterdam. Only 100 whites are left in the city.
New York's governor Willem Kieft issues letters of patent to English immigrants Thomas Applegate, Lawrence Dutch, Thomas Farrington, Robert Field, Robert Firmin, John Hicks, John Lawrence, William Lawrence, John Marsten, Thomas Saul, Henry Sawtell, Thomas Stiles, William Thorne, John Townsend, William Widgeon and Michael Willard, for the Long Island settlement of Flushing.
The Hudson River freezes over for the season at Rensselaerwyck.
The Oakland Gardens area of Queens is settled, by Flushing patentee John Hicks. ** Hoping to form a buffer between New Amsterdam and the Long Island tribes, Dutch officials encourage a group of New England religious dissenters led by Lady Deborah Moody to establish a colony at Gravesend, near Coney Island, in the future Brooklyn.
New Amsterdam receives its first cargo of slaves.
Kieft is ordered to give up his post.
The Dutch West India Company declares the Village of Breuckelen a municipality, the first in present-day New York State.
The patroon system is judged a failure by the Dutch West India Company.
Former New Amsterdam schoolmaster Adam Roelantsen, often in trouble with the law and now reduced to taking in laundry, attacks Wyntje Theunis, wife of Herk Syboltsen, and is sentenced to be publicly flogged and banished. The sentence will be suspended because of his four motherless children.
Lawyer Adriaen van den Donck moves 50 families to his estate in the Bronx. The settlement will be wiped out by Indians. ** Farmer Jan Jansen Damen shoots bears in his orchard on lower Broadway, between Pine and Cedar streets, where the Equitable Building will one day rise.
A 40-foot-long whale is beached at the mouth of the Mohawk River during Spring floods. Four others will be beached in the area this year.
Peter Stuyvesant arrives in Nieuw Amsterdam (New York City), as Director General, to replace Willem Kieft.
Stuyvesant forms a Board of Nine Men to help him govern New York.
Having sailed for Holland with ore samples from the colony aboard the Princess, Governor Willem Kieft drowns when the ship is wrecked in the Britain's Bristol Channel. Also lost are Dominie Bogardus and other officials.
Stuyvesant, his colony nearly bankrupt, jails Adrian van der Donck, leader of the Board of Nine Men, who are seeking stronger power.
Stuyvesant requires all Manhattan lots to be built on.
Father Ragueneu refers to a "waterfall of dreadful" height in the western part of the state. ** Hudson Valley patroon Killian Van Rensselaer dies in Amsterdam, Holland, without ever having visited the New World. He leaves the patroonship to his two sons.
Breaking the peace with the French, Iroquois tribes attack Huron villages of Saint Joseph II and Saint-Michel in Ontario, Canada.
New Amsterdam's first pier is built, in the East River at Schreyer's Hook. ** A law calling for pigs to be penned is ignored.
Settlers under Van der Donck prepare a Remonstrance, or protest, against the management of the Dutch West India Company, to send to the Staats-General in the Netherlands. A map prepared for the report has since been lost.
England's Charles I is beheaded.
Over a thousand Senecas and Mohawks attack the Huron villages of Saint-Ignace and Saint-Louis in Ontario.
The Nine Men inform the Dutch States-General they are sending three delegates to the Netherlands bearing A Petition of the Delegates, a Petition of the Commonality of New Netherland, and The Remonstrance of New Netherland, with charges against Stuyvesant's rule.
The city applies for designation as a municipality.
The Hurons, Neutrals and Eries are defeated by the Iroquois. ** The first purchase of land from Indians in the future Westchester County town of Greenburgh is made.
© 2002 David Minor / Eagles Byte